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Its popularity led to its use in ever more lavish and costly games. The gladiator games lasted for nearly a thousand years, reaching their peak between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD.

The games finally declined during the early 5th century after the adoption of Christianity as state church of the Roman Empire in , although beast hunts venationes continued into the 6th century.

Early literary sources seldom agree on the origins of gladiators and the gladiator games. Reappraisal of pictorial evidence supports a Campanian origin, or at least a borrowing, for the games and gladiators.

The Paestum frescoes may represent the continuation of a much older tradition, acquired or inherited from Greek colonists of the 8th century BC.

This is described as a munus plural: munera , a commemorative duty owed the manes of a dead ancestor by his descendants. The war in Samnium, immediately afterwards, was attended with equal danger and an equally glorious conclusion.

The enemy, besides their other warlike preparation, had made their battle-line to glitter with new and splendid arms.

There were two corps: the shields of the one were inlaid with gold, of the other with silver The Romans had already heard of these splendid accoutrements, but their generals had taught them that a soldier should be rough to look on, not adorned with gold and silver but putting his trust in iron and in courage The Dictator , as decreed by the senate , celebrated a triumph, in which by far the finest show was afforded by the captured armour.

So the Romans made use of the splendid armour of their enemies to do honour to their gods; while the Campanians, in consequence of their pride and in hatred of the Samnites, equipped after this fashion the gladiators who furnished them entertainment at their feasts, and bestowed on them the name Samnites.

Livy's account skirts the funereal, sacrificial function of early Roman gladiator combats and reflects the later theatrical ethos of the Roman gladiator show: splendidly, exotically armed and armoured barbarians , treacherous and degenerate, are dominated by Roman iron and native courage.

Their Campanian allies stage a dinner entertainment using gladiators who may not be Samnites, but play the Samnite role. Other groups and tribes would join the cast list as Roman territories expanded.

Most gladiators were armed and armoured in the manner of the enemies of Rome. In BC, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus , late consul and augur , was honoured by his sons with three days of gladiatora munera in the Forum Romanum , using twenty-two pairs of gladiators.

High status non-Romans, and possibly Romans too, volunteered as his gladiators. The enthusiastic adoption of gladiatoria munera by Rome's Iberian allies shows how easily, and how early, the culture of the gladiator munus permeated places far from Rome itself.

By BC, "small" Roman munera private or public , provided by an editor of relatively low importance, may have been so commonplace and unremarkable they were not considered worth recording: [22].

The climax of the show which was big for the time was that in three days seventy four gladiators fought.

In BC, the ruling consuls offered Rome its first taste of state-sponsored " barbarian combat" demonstrated by gladiators from Capua, as part of a training program for the military.

It proved immensely popular. Where traditional ludi had been dedicated to a deity, such as Jupiter , the munera could be dedicated to an aristocratic sponsor's divine or heroic ancestor.

Gladiator games offered their sponsors extravagantly expensive but effective opportunities for self-promotion, and gave their clients and potential voters exciting entertainment at little or no cost to themselves.

A politically ambitious privatus private citizen might postpone his deceased father's munus to the election season, when a generous show might drum up votes; those in power and those seeking it needed the support of the plebeians and their tribunes , whose votes might be won with the mere promise of an exceptionally good show.

In the closing years of the politically and socially unstable Late Republic, any aristocratic owner of gladiators had political muscle at his disposal.

Despite an already enormous personal debt, he used gladiator pairs in silvered armour. Gladiatorial games, usually linked with beast shows, spread throughout the Republic and beyond.

Legislation of AD by Marcus Aurelius did little to stop it, and was completely ignored by his son, Commodus.

The decline of the munus was a far from straightforward process. Still, emperors continued to subsidize the games as a matter of undiminished public interest.

Ten years later, he forbade criminals being forced to fight to the death as gladiators:. Bloody spectacles do not please us in civil ease and domestic quiet.

For that reason we forbid those people to be gladiators who by reason of some criminal act were accustomed to deserve this condition and sentence.

You shall rather sentence them to serve in the mines so that they may acknowledge the penalties of their crimes with blood [49]. This has been interpreted as a ban on gladiatorial combat.

Yet, in the last year of his life, Constantine wrote a letter to the citizens of Hispellum, granting its people the right to celebrate his rule with gladiatorial games.

In , Valentinian I r. In , Theodosius I r. Honorius r. According to Theodoret , the ban was in consequence of Saint Telemachus ' martyrdom by spectators at a munus.

In the Byzantine Empire, theatrical shows and chariot races continued to attract the crowds, and drew a generous Imperial subsidy.

It is not known how many gladiatoria munera were given throughout the Roman period. Many, if not most, involved venationes , and in the later Empire some may have been only that.

In BC, at least one munus was held during April's Megalesia. In the early Imperial era, munera in Pompeii and neighbouring towns were dispersed from March through November.

They included a provincial magnate's five-day munus of thirty pairs, plus beast-hunts. Of days reserved for spectacles of various kinds, were for theatrical shows, 64 for chariot races and just 10 in December for gladiator games and venationes.

A century before this, the emperor Alexander Severus r. As Wiedemann points out, December was also the month for the Saturnalia , Saturn's festival, in which death was linked to renewal, and the lowest were honoured as the highest.

The earliest munera took place at or near the tomb of the deceased and these were organised by their munerator who made the offering. Later games were held by an editor , either identical with the munerator or an official employed by him.

As time passed, these titles and meanings may have merged. From the Principate onwards, private citizens could hold munera and own gladiators only under Imperial permission, and the role of editor was increasingly tied to state officialdom.

Bigger games were put on by senior magistrates, who could better afford them. The largest and most lavish of all were paid for by the emperor himself.

The earliest types of gladiator were named after Rome's enemies of that time: the Samnite , Thracian and Gaul. The Samnite, heavily armed, elegantly helmed and probably the most popular type, [ citation needed ] was renamed secutor and the Gaul renamed murmillo , once these former enemies had been conquered then absorbed into Rome's Empire.

In the mid-republican munus , each type seems to have fought against a similar or identical type. In the later Republic and early Empire, various "fantasy" types were introduced, and were set against dissimilar but complementary types.

For example, the bareheaded, nimble retiarius "net-man" , armoured only at the left arm and shoulder, pitted his net, trident and dagger against the more heavily armoured, helmeted Secutor.

Passing literary references to others has allowed their tentative reconstruction. Other novelties introduced around this time included gladiators who fought from chariots or carts , or from horseback.

The trade in gladiators was empire-wide, and subjected to official supervision. Rome's military success produced a supply of soldier-prisoners who were redistributed for use in State mines or amphitheatres and for sale on the open market.

In Rome's military ethos, enemy soldiers who had surrendered or allowed their own capture and enslavement had been granted an unmerited gift of life.

Their training as gladiators would give them opportunity to redeem their honour in the munus. For the poor, and for non-citizens, enrollment in a gladiator school offered a trade, regular food, housing of sorts and a fighting chance of fame and fortune.

Mark Antony chose a troupe of gladiators to be his personal bodyguard. Tiberius offered several retired gladiators , sesterces each to return to the arena.

From the 60s AD female gladiators appear as rare and "exotic markers of exceptionally lavish spectacle". Cassius Dio takes pains to point out that when the much admired emperor Titus used female gladiators, they were of acceptably low class.

Some regarded female gladiators of any type or class as a symptom of corrupted Roman appetites, morals and womanhood. Before he became emperor, Septimius Severus may have attended the Antiochene Olympic Games, which had been revived by the emperor Commodus and included traditional Greek female athletics.

His attempt to give Rome a similarly dignified display of female athletics was met by the crowd with ribald chants and cat-calls. Caligula , Titus , Hadrian , Lucius Verus , Caracalla , Geta and Didius Julianus were all said to have performed in the arena, either in public or private, but risks to themselves were minimal.

Commodus was a fanatical participant at the ludi , and compelled Rome's elite to attend his performances as gladiator, bestiarius or venator.

Most of his performances as a gladiator were bloodless affairs, fought with wooden swords; he invariably won. He was said to have restyled Nero's colossal statue in his own image as " Hercules Reborn", dedicated to himself as "Champion of secutores ; only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times one thousand men.

On another occasion, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart, carried the bloodied head and his sword over to the Senatorial seats and gesticulated as though they were next.

Gladiator games were advertised well beforehand, on billboards that gave the reason for the game, its editor, venue, date and the number of paired gladiators ordinarii to be used.

Other highlighted features could include details of venationes , executions, music and any luxuries to be provided for the spectators, such as an awning against the sun, water sprinklers, food, drink, sweets and occasionally "door prizes".

For enthusiasts and gamblers, a more detailed program libellus was distributed on the day of the munus , showing the names, types and match records of gladiator pairs, and their order of appearance.

The night before the munus , the gladiators were given a banquet and opportunity to order their personal and private affairs; Futrell notes its similarity to a ritualistic or sacramental "last meal".

The event may also have been used to drum up more publicity for the imminent game. Official munera of the early Imperial era seem to have followed a standard form munus legitimum.

They were followed by a small band of trumpeters tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to "witness" the proceedings, followed by a scribe to record the outcome, and a man carrying the palm branch used to honour victors.

The magistrate editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; the gladiators presumably came in last.

The entertainments often began with venationes beast hunts and bestiarii beast fighters. A crude Pompeian graffito suggests a burlesque of musicians, dressed as animals named Ursus tibicen flute-playing bear and Pullus cornicen horn-blowing chicken , perhaps as accompaniment to clowning by paegniarii during a "mock" contest of the ludi meridiani.

Increasingly the munus was the editor' s gift to spectators who had come to expect the best as their due. Lightly armed and armoured fighters, such as the retiarius , would tire less rapidly than their heavily armed opponents; most bouts would have lasted 10 to 15 minutes, or 20 minutes at most.

Spectators preferred to watch highly skilled, well matched ordinarii with complementary fighting styles; these were the most costly to train and to hire.

A general melee of several, lower-skilled gladiators was far less costly, but also less popular. Even among the ordinarii , match winners might have to fight a new, well-rested opponent, either a tertiarius "third choice gladiator" by prearrangement; or a "substitute" gladiator suppositicius who fought at the whim of the editor as an unadvertised, unexpected "extra".

Most were probably of poor quality, [] but the emperor Caracalla chose to test a notably skilled and successful fighter named Bato against first one supposicitius , whom he beat, and then another, who killed him.

Combats between experienced, well trained gladiators demonstrated a considerable degree of stagecraft. Among the cognoscenti, bravado and skill in combat were esteemed over mere hacking and bloodshed; some gladiators made their careers and reputation from bloodless victories.

Suetonius describes an exceptional munus by Nero, in which no-one was killed, "not even noxii enemies of the state.

Trained gladiators were expected to observe professional rules of combat. Most matches employed a senior referee summa rudis and an assistant, shown in mosaics with long staffs rudes to caution or separate opponents at some crucial point in the match.

Referees were usually retired gladiators whose decisions, judgement and discretion were, for the most part, respected; [] they could stop bouts entirely, or pause them to allow the combatants rest, refreshment and a rub-down.

Ludi and munera were accompanied by music, played as interludes, or building to a "frenzied crescendo" during combats, perhaps to heighten the suspense during a gladiator's appeal; blows may have been accompanied by trumpet-blasts.

Their instruments are a long straight trumpet tubicen , a large curved horn Cornu and a water organ hydraulis.

A match was won by the gladiator who overcame his opponent, or killed him outright. Victors received the palm branch and an award from the editor.

An outstanding fighter might receive a laurel crown and money from an appreciative crowd but for anyone originally condemned ad ludum the greatest reward was manumission emancipation , symbolised by the gift of a wooden training sword or staff rudis from the editor.

Martial describes a match between Priscus and Verus , who fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, Titus awarded victory and a rudis to each.

His gravestone in Sicily includes his record: "Flamma, secutor , lived 30 years, fought 34 times, won 21 times, fought to a draw 9 times, defeated 4 times, a Syrian by nationality.

Delicatus made this for his deserving comrade-in-arms. A gladiator could acknowledge defeat by raising a finger ad digitum , in appeal to the referee to stop the combat and refer to the editor , whose decision would usually rest on the crowd's response.

During the Imperial era, matches advertised as sine missione without remission from the sentence of death suggest that missio the sparing of a defeated gladiator's life had become common practice.

The contract between editor and his lanista could include compensation for unexpected deaths; [] this could be "some fifty times higher than the lease price" of the gladiator.

Under Augustus' rule, the demand for gladiators began to exceed supply, and matches sine missione were officially banned; an economical, pragmatic development that happened to match popular notions of "natural justice".

When Caligula and Claudius refused to spare defeated but popular fighters, their own popularity suffered. In general, gladiators who fought well were likely to survive.

Whether victorious or defeated, a gladiator was bound by oath to accept or implement his editor's decision, "the victor being nothing but the instrument of his [editor's] will.

Once a band of five retiarii in tunics, matched against the same number of secutores , yielded without a struggle; but when their death was ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors.

Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel murder. A gladiator who was refused missio was despatched by his opponent.

To die well, a gladiator should never ask for mercy, nor cry out. For death, when it stands near us, gives even to inexperienced men the courage not to seek to avoid the inevitable.

So the gladiator, no matter how faint-hearted he has been throughout the fight, offers his throat to his opponent and directs the wavering blade to the vital spot.

Epistles , Some mosaics show defeated gladiators kneeling in preparation for the moment of death. Seneca's "vital spot" seems to have meant the neck.

The body of a gladiator who had died well was placed on a couch of Libitina and removed with dignity to the arena morgue, where the corpse was stripped of armour, and probably had its throat cut to prove that dead was dead.

The Christian author Tertullian , commenting on ludi meridiani in Roman Carthage during the peak era of the games, describes a more humiliating method of removal.

One arena official, dressed as the "brother of Jove", Dis Pater god of the underworld strikes the corpse with a mallet. Another, dressed as Mercury , tests for life-signs with a heated "wand"; once confirmed as dead, the body is dragged from the arena.

Whether these victims were gladiators or noxii is unknown. Modern pathological examination confirms the probably fatal use of a mallet on some, but not all the gladiator skulls found in a gladiators' cemetery.

Whether the corpse of such a gladiator could be redeemed from further ignominy by friends or familia is not known. The bodies of noxii , and possibly some damnati , were thrown into rivers or dumped unburied; [] Denial of funeral rites and memorial condemned the shade manes of the deceased to restless wandering upon the earth as a dreadful larva or lemur.

The taint of infamia was perpetual. Gladiators could subscribe to a union collegia , which ensured their proper burial, and sometimes a pension or compensation for wives and children.

Otherwise, the gladiator's familia , which included his lanista , comrades and blood-kin, might fund his funeral and memorial costs, and use the memorial to assert their moral reputation as responsible, respectful colleagues or family members.

Some include the gladiator's type, in words or direct representation: for example, the memorial of a retiarius at Verona included an engraved trident and sword.

According to Cassius Dio, the emperor Caracalla gave the gladiator Bato a magnificent memorial and State funeral; [] more typical are the simple gladiator tombs of the Eastern Roman Empire, whose brief inscriptions include the following:.

Titus Flavius Satyrus set up this monument in his memory from his own money. Paitraeites with his cell-mates set this up in memory". Very little evidence survives of the religious beliefs of gladiators as a class, or their expectations of an afterlife.

Modern scholarship offers little support for the once-prevalent notion that gladiators, venatores and bestiarii were personally or professionally dedicated to the cult of the Graeco-Roman goddess Nemesis.

Rather, she seems to have represented a kind of "Imperial Fortuna " who dispensed Imperial retribution on the one hand, and Imperially subsidised gifts on the other — including the munera.

One gladiator's tomb dedication clearly states that her decisions are not to be trusted. Having no personal responsibility for his own defeat and death, the losing gladiator remains the better man, worth avenging.

Doom killed me, not the liar Pinnas. No longer let him boast. I had a fellow gladiator, Polyneikes, who killed Pinnas and avenged me.

Claudius Thallus set up this memorial from what I left behind as a legacy. A gladiator might expect to fight in two or three munera annually, and an unknown number would have died in their first match.

Few gladiators survived more than 10 contests, though one survived an extraordinary bouts; [] and another died at 90 years of age, presumably long after retirement.

The earliest named gladiator school singular: ludus ; plural: ludi is that of Aurelius Scaurus at Capua.

He was lanista of the gladiators employed by the state circa BC to instruct the legions and simultaneously entertain the public. Socially, they were infames , on a footing with pimps and butchers and despised as price gougers.

The Spartacus revolt had originated in a gladiator school privately owned by Lentulus Batiatus , and had been suppressed only after a protracted series of costly, sometimes disastrous campaigns by regular Roman troops.

In the late Republican era, a fear of similar uprisings, the usefulness of gladiator schools in creating private armies, and the exploitation of munera for political gain led to increased restrictions on gladiator school ownership, siting and organisation.

By Domitian 's time, many had been more or less absorbed by the State, including those at Pergamum , Alexandria , Praeneste and Capua.

Roman myrmillones gladiator helmet with relief depicting scenes from the Trojan War from Herculaneum. In the Imperial era, volunteers required a magistrate's permission to join a school as auctorati.

Their contract auctoramentum stipulated how often they were to perform, their fighting style and earnings. A condemned bankrupt or debtor accepted as novice novicius could negotiate with his lanista or editor for the partial or complete payment of his debt.

Faced with runaway re-enlistment fees for skilled auctorati , Marcus Aurelius set their upper limit at 12, sesterces.

All prospective gladiators, whether volunteer or condemned, were bound to service by a sacred oath sacramentum.

Fighting styles were probably learned through constant rehearsal as choreographed "numbers". An elegant, economical style was preferred.

Training included preparation for a stoical, unflinching death. Successful training required intense commitment.

Soldiers were routinely marked on the hand. Gladiators were typically accommodated in cells, arranged in barrack formation around a central practice arena.

Juvenal describes the segregation of gladiators according to type and status, suggestive of rigid hierarchies within the schools: "even the lowest scum of the arena observe this rule; even in prison they're separate".

Retiarii were kept away from damnati , and "fag targeteers" from "armoured heavies". As most ordinarii at games were from the same school, this kept potential opponents separate and safe from each other until the lawful munus.

Its replacement could have housed about and included a very small cell, probably for lesser punishments and so low that standing was impossible.

Despite the harsh discipline, gladiators represented a substantial investment for their lanista and were otherwise well fed and cared for.

Their daily, high-energy, vegetarian diet consisted of barley , boiled beans , oatmeal , ash and dried fruit. Part of Galen 's medical training was at a gladiator school in Pergamum where he saw and would later criticise the training, diet, and long-term health prospects of the gladiators.

Modern customs and institutions offer few useful parallels to the legal and social context of the gladiatoria munera.

Offenders seen as particularly obnoxious to the state noxii received the most humiliating punishments. These damnati at least might put on a good show and retrieve some respect, and very rarely, survive to fight another day.

Some may even have become "proper" gladiators. Among the most admired and skilled auctorati were those who, having been granted manumission, volunteered to fight in the arena.

Their legal status — slave or free — is uncertain. Under Roman law, a freed gladiator could not "offer such services [as those of a gladiator] after manumission, because they cannot be performed without endangering [his] life.

Payment for such appearances compounded their infamia. They could not vote, plead in court nor leave a will; and unless they were manumitted, their lives and property belonged to their masters.

Some "unfree" gladiators bequeathed money and personal property to wives and children, possibly via a sympathetic owner or familia ; some had their own slaves and gave them their freedom.

Caesar's munus of 46 BC included at least one equestrian, son of a Praetor, and two volunteers of possible senatorial rank.

Thereafter, Caligula flouted them and Claudius strengthened them. Even after the adoption of Christianity as Rome's official religion, legislation forbade the involvement of Rome's upper social classes in the games, though not the games themselves.

His motives are unknown, but his voluntary and "shameless" arena appearance combined the "womanly attire" of a lowly retiarius tunicatus , adorned with golden ribbons, with the apex headdress that marked him out as a priest of Mars.

In Juvenal's account, he seems to have relished the scandalous self-display, applause and the disgrace he inflicted on his more sturdy opponent by repeatedly skipping away from the confrontation.

As munera grew larger and more popular, open spaces such as the Forum Romanum were adapted as the Forum Boarium had been as venues in Rome and elsewhere, with temporary, elevated seating for the patron and high status spectators; they were popular but not truly public events:.

A show of gladiators was to be exhibited before the people in the market-place, and most of the magistrates erected scaffolds round about, with an intention of letting them for advantage.

Caius commanded them to take down their scaffolds, that the poor people might see the sport without paying anything. But nobody obeying these orders of his, he gathered together a body of labourers, who worked for him, and overthrew all the scaffolds the very night before the contest was to take place.

So that by the next morning the market-place was cleared, and the common people had an opportunity of seeing the pastime. In this, the populace thought he had acted the part of a man; but he much disobliged the tribunes his colleagues, who regarded it as a piece of violent and presumptuous interference.

Ticket scalpers Locarii sometimes sold or let out seats at inflated prices. Martial wrote that "Hermes [a gladiator who always drew the crowds] means riches for the ticket scalpers".

It was inaugurated by Titus in 80 AD as the personal gift of the Emperor to the people of Rome, paid for by the imperial share of booty after the Jewish Revolt.

Amphitheatres were usually oval in plan. Their seating tiers surrounded the arena below, where the community's judgments were meted out, in full public view.

From across the stands, crowd and editor could assess each other's character and temperament. For the crowd, amphitheatres afforded unique opportunities for free expression and free speech theatralis licentia.

Petitions could be submitted to the editor as magistrate in full view of the community. Factiones and claques could vent their spleen on each other, and occasionally on Emperors.

The emperor Titus's dignified yet confident ease in his management of an amphitheatre crowd and its factions were taken as a measure of his enormous popularity and the rightness of his imperium.

The amphitheatre munus thus served the Roman community as living theatre and a court in miniature, in which judgement could be served not only on those in the arena below, but on their judges.

Their seating was "disorderly and indiscriminate" until Augustus prescribed its arrangement in his Social Reforms. To persuade the Senate, he expressed his distress on behalf of a Senator who could not find seating at a crowded games in Puteoli :.

In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that even freedmen were sometimes appointed.

He separated the soldiery from the people. He assigned special seats to the married men of the commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak should sit in the middle of the house.

He would not allow women to view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows.

Only the Vestal virgins were assigned a place to themselves, opposite the praetor's tribunal. These arrangements do not seem to have been strongly enforced.

Popular factions supported favourite gladiators and gladiator types. The secutor was equipped with a long, heavy "large" shield called a scutum ; Secutores , their supporters and any heavyweight secutor -based types such as the Murmillo were secutarii.

Titus and Trajan preferred the parmularii and Domitian the secutarii ; Marcus Aurelius took neither side. Nero seems to have enjoyed the brawls between rowdy, enthusiastic and sometimes violent factions, but called in the troops if they went too far.

There were also local rivalries. At Pompeii's amphitheatre, during Nero's reign, the trading of insults between Pompeians and Nucerian spectators during public ludi led to stone throwing and riot.

Many were killed or wounded. Nero banned gladiator munera though not the games at Pompeii for ten years as punishment. The story is told in Pompeian graffiti and high quality wall painting, with much boasting of Pompeii's "victory" over Nuceria.

A man who knows how to conquer in war is a man who knows how to arrange a banquet and put on a show. Rome was essentially a landowning military aristocracy.

From the early days of the Republic, ten years of military service were a citizen's duty and a prerequisite for election to public office.

Devotio willingness to sacrifice one's life to the greater good was central to the Roman military ideal, and was the core of the Roman military oath.

It applied from highest to lowest alike in the chain of command. In the aftermath of Cannae, Scipio Africanus crucified Roman deserters and had non-Roman deserters thrown to the beasts.

In obedience to the Books of Destiny, some strange and unusual sacrifices were made, human sacrifices amongst them.

They were lowered into a stone vault, which had on a previous occasion also been polluted by human victims, a practice most repulsive to Roman feelings.

When the gods were believed to be duly propitiated Armour, weapons, and other things of the kind were ordered to be in readiness, and the ancient spoils gathered from the enemy were taken down from the temples and colonnades.

The dearth of freemen necessitated a new kind of enlistment; 8, sturdy youths from amongst the slaves were armed at the public cost, after they had each been asked whether they were willing to serve or no.

These soldiers were preferred, as there would be an opportunity of ransoming them when taken prisoners at a lower price.

The account notes, uncomfortably, the bloodless human sacrifices performed to help turn the tide of the war in Rome's favour. While the Senate mustered their willing slaves, Hannibal offered his dishonoured Roman captives a chance for honourable death, in what Livy describes as something very like the Roman munus.

The munus thus represented an essentially military, self-sacrificial ideal, taken to extreme fulfillment in the gladiator's oath.

Two years later, following its defeat at the Battle of Arausio :. Rutilius, consul with C. For he, following the example of no previous general, with teachers summoned from the gladiatorial training school of C.

Aurelus Scaurus, implanted in the legions a more sophisticated method of avoiding and dealing a blow and mixed bravery with skill and skill back again with virtue so that skill became stronger by bravery's passion and passion became more wary with the knowledge of this art.

The military were great aficionados of the games, and supervised the schools. Many schools and amphitheatres were sited at or near military barracks, and some provincial army units owned gladiator troupes.

It would rise to twenty, and later, to twenty-five years. Roman military discipline was ferocious; severe enough to provoke mutiny, despite the consequences.

A career as a volunteer gladiator may have seemed an attractive option for some. Opposite him on the field, Vitellius 's army was swollen by levies of slaves, plebs and gladiators.

They had served their late master with exemplary loyalty but thereafter, they disappear from the record. Roman writing as a whole demonstrates a deep ambivalence towards the gladiatoria munera.

Even the most complex and sophisticated munera of the Imperial era evoked the ancient, ancestral dii manes of the underworld and were framed by the protective, lawful rites of sacrificium.

Their popularity made their co-option by the state inevitable; Cicero acknowledged their sponsorship as a political imperative.

And suppose a gladiator has been brought to the ground, when do you ever see one twist his neck away after he has been ordered to extend it for the death blow?

Thus demoralised was Capua. The munus itself could be interpreted as pious necessity, but its increasing luxury corroded Roman virtue, and created an un-Roman appetite for profligacy and self-indulgence.

Having "neither hope nor illusions", the gladiator could transcend his own debased nature, and disempower death itself by meeting it face to face.

Courage, dignity, altruism and loyalty were morally redemptive; Lucian idealised this principle in his story of Sisinnes, who voluntarily fought as a gladiator, earned 10, drachmas and used it to buy freedom for his friend, Toxaris.

These accounts seek a higher moral meaning from the munus , but Ovid 's very detailed though satirical instructions for seduction in the amphitheatre suggest that the spectacles could generate a potent and dangerously sexual atmosphere.

Chrysler bought out AMC in The full-size Jeep Pickup line was not only an aging model, but also competed directly with the broader range of Dodge trucks.

Chrysler discontinued the full-size Jeep trucks, but continued to build the luxurious and highly profitable Grand Wagoneer , which shared the chassis with the large pickups.

After the Chrysler buyout, the compact Jeep Comanche pickup based on the Jeep Cherokee XJ platform received only minor changes and its production continued until Military versions of the civilian Jeep pickup included the M and M, built from to They were built under contract for nations in addition to the United States.

The Swedish Air Force acquired Gladiator vehicles in the early s. They were given the local designations Klargöringsbil and Klargöringsbil , with the latter variant being equipped with a hard cargo bed top.

The vehicles were modified to be used by aircraft groundcrew for mobile flight line operations in the Swedish Bas 90 system, and could carry trailers with equipment and tow aircraft.

It is often informally referred to as "The Dallas Jeep". Many of these vehicles fell into the hands of the various competing Lebanese militias, who either used them for logistical and transport operations or modified them to be used as technicals , fitted with Heavy machine guns or Anti-Aircraft Autocannons.

From the "Honcho" trim package was offered on the J10 pickup. It consisted of bold striping and decals, and was offered with factory extras such as the Levi's interior or a roll bar.

The content of the Honcho package varied from year to year, but "always included the wide-track look of the Cherokee Chief.

The Honcho was one in a series of special decal packages offered for J-Series trucks in the mid to late s, which included the — Golden Eagle [14] and the "" version which offered an optional Citizens' Band radio along with the decals.

The Honcho package was only available on the sportside stepside and short bed trucks. Between and , only 1, of the sportside versions were produced.

Decal packages were available for many of Jeep's vehicles in the s, including a package for the Jeep Cherokee called the Cherokee Chief.

The model year Laredo package was perhaps the most luxurious one, including leather bucket seats, and leather-wrapped steering wheel, chrome interior trim, and a state-of-the-art Alpine sound system.

Jeep has shown numerous concept pickup trucks, and officials at the automaker have "expressed interest in putting such a vehicle into production.

A production-ready version of a Jeep Scrambler pickup was shown in at the North American Dealers Association, but was pulled after a few hours.

According to Motor Trend , there might be a "production Jeep pickup truck in the works". In late a new Jeep Gladiator concept was introduced.

While not officially intended to be sold, it was used as a demonstration "that a Jeep pickup was in the dark recesses of DaimlerChrysler's brain trust.

The Gladiator concept features an open-air canvas roof, fold-down windshield , removable doors, and has an expandable truck bed. The Gladiator has a 2.

The truck has a 6-speed manual transmission. Ground clearance is A "midgate" made the concept Gladiator truck closer to an imitation of the Chevrolet Avalanche , "than an attempt to revive its namesake's glory.

At the Jeep Safari in Moab, Utah, Jeep revealed seven new concepts including a Crew Chief pickup with four-doors and a 5-foot cargo bed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Soldiers were routinely marked on the hand. Gladiators were typically accommodated in cells, arranged in barrack formation around a central practice arena.

Juvenal describes the segregation of gladiators according to type and status, suggestive of rigid hierarchies within the schools: "even the lowest scum of the arena observe this rule; even in prison they're separate".

Retiarii were kept away from damnati , and "fag targeteers" from "armoured heavies". As most ordinarii at games were from the same school, this kept potential opponents separate and safe from each other until the lawful munus.

Its replacement could have housed about and included a very small cell, probably for lesser punishments and so low that standing was impossible.

Despite the harsh discipline, gladiators represented a substantial investment for their lanista and were otherwise well fed and cared for. Their daily, high-energy, vegetarian diet consisted of barley , boiled beans , oatmeal , ash and dried fruit.

Part of Galen 's medical training was at a gladiator school in Pergamum where he saw and would later criticise the training, diet, and long-term health prospects of the gladiators.

Modern customs and institutions offer few useful parallels to the legal and social context of the gladiatoria munera. Offenders seen as particularly obnoxious to the state noxii received the most humiliating punishments.

These damnati at least might put on a good show and retrieve some respect, and very rarely, survive to fight another day.

Some may even have become "proper" gladiators. Among the most admired and skilled auctorati were those who, having been granted manumission, volunteered to fight in the arena.

Their legal status — slave or free — is uncertain. Under Roman law, a freed gladiator could not "offer such services [as those of a gladiator] after manumission, because they cannot be performed without endangering [his] life.

Payment for such appearances compounded their infamia. They could not vote, plead in court nor leave a will; and unless they were manumitted, their lives and property belonged to their masters.

Some "unfree" gladiators bequeathed money and personal property to wives and children, possibly via a sympathetic owner or familia ; some had their own slaves and gave them their freedom.

Caesar's munus of 46 BC included at least one equestrian, son of a Praetor, and two volunteers of possible senatorial rank. Thereafter, Caligula flouted them and Claudius strengthened them.

Even after the adoption of Christianity as Rome's official religion, legislation forbade the involvement of Rome's upper social classes in the games, though not the games themselves.

His motives are unknown, but his voluntary and "shameless" arena appearance combined the "womanly attire" of a lowly retiarius tunicatus , adorned with golden ribbons, with the apex headdress that marked him out as a priest of Mars.

In Juvenal's account, he seems to have relished the scandalous self-display, applause and the disgrace he inflicted on his more sturdy opponent by repeatedly skipping away from the confrontation.

As munera grew larger and more popular, open spaces such as the Forum Romanum were adapted as the Forum Boarium had been as venues in Rome and elsewhere, with temporary, elevated seating for the patron and high status spectators; they were popular but not truly public events:.

A show of gladiators was to be exhibited before the people in the market-place, and most of the magistrates erected scaffolds round about, with an intention of letting them for advantage.

Caius commanded them to take down their scaffolds, that the poor people might see the sport without paying anything.

But nobody obeying these orders of his, he gathered together a body of labourers, who worked for him, and overthrew all the scaffolds the very night before the contest was to take place.

So that by the next morning the market-place was cleared, and the common people had an opportunity of seeing the pastime. In this, the populace thought he had acted the part of a man; but he much disobliged the tribunes his colleagues, who regarded it as a piece of violent and presumptuous interference.

Ticket scalpers Locarii sometimes sold or let out seats at inflated prices. Martial wrote that "Hermes [a gladiator who always drew the crowds] means riches for the ticket scalpers".

It was inaugurated by Titus in 80 AD as the personal gift of the Emperor to the people of Rome, paid for by the imperial share of booty after the Jewish Revolt.

Amphitheatres were usually oval in plan. Their seating tiers surrounded the arena below, where the community's judgments were meted out, in full public view.

From across the stands, crowd and editor could assess each other's character and temperament. For the crowd, amphitheatres afforded unique opportunities for free expression and free speech theatralis licentia.

Petitions could be submitted to the editor as magistrate in full view of the community. Factiones and claques could vent their spleen on each other, and occasionally on Emperors.

The emperor Titus's dignified yet confident ease in his management of an amphitheatre crowd and its factions were taken as a measure of his enormous popularity and the rightness of his imperium.

The amphitheatre munus thus served the Roman community as living theatre and a court in miniature, in which judgement could be served not only on those in the arena below, but on their judges.

Their seating was "disorderly and indiscriminate" until Augustus prescribed its arrangement in his Social Reforms. To persuade the Senate, he expressed his distress on behalf of a Senator who could not find seating at a crowded games in Puteoli :.

In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that even freedmen were sometimes appointed.

He separated the soldiery from the people. He assigned special seats to the married men of the commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak should sit in the middle of the house.

He would not allow women to view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows.

Only the Vestal virgins were assigned a place to themselves, opposite the praetor's tribunal. These arrangements do not seem to have been strongly enforced.

Popular factions supported favourite gladiators and gladiator types. The secutor was equipped with a long, heavy "large" shield called a scutum ; Secutores , their supporters and any heavyweight secutor -based types such as the Murmillo were secutarii.

Titus and Trajan preferred the parmularii and Domitian the secutarii ; Marcus Aurelius took neither side. Nero seems to have enjoyed the brawls between rowdy, enthusiastic and sometimes violent factions, but called in the troops if they went too far.

There were also local rivalries. At Pompeii's amphitheatre, during Nero's reign, the trading of insults between Pompeians and Nucerian spectators during public ludi led to stone throwing and riot.

Many were killed or wounded. Nero banned gladiator munera though not the games at Pompeii for ten years as punishment. The story is told in Pompeian graffiti and high quality wall painting, with much boasting of Pompeii's "victory" over Nuceria.

A man who knows how to conquer in war is a man who knows how to arrange a banquet and put on a show. Rome was essentially a landowning military aristocracy.

From the early days of the Republic, ten years of military service were a citizen's duty and a prerequisite for election to public office.

Devotio willingness to sacrifice one's life to the greater good was central to the Roman military ideal, and was the core of the Roman military oath.

It applied from highest to lowest alike in the chain of command. In the aftermath of Cannae, Scipio Africanus crucified Roman deserters and had non-Roman deserters thrown to the beasts.

In obedience to the Books of Destiny, some strange and unusual sacrifices were made, human sacrifices amongst them. They were lowered into a stone vault, which had on a previous occasion also been polluted by human victims, a practice most repulsive to Roman feelings.

When the gods were believed to be duly propitiated Armour, weapons, and other things of the kind were ordered to be in readiness, and the ancient spoils gathered from the enemy were taken down from the temples and colonnades.

The dearth of freemen necessitated a new kind of enlistment; 8, sturdy youths from amongst the slaves were armed at the public cost, after they had each been asked whether they were willing to serve or no.

These soldiers were preferred, as there would be an opportunity of ransoming them when taken prisoners at a lower price. The account notes, uncomfortably, the bloodless human sacrifices performed to help turn the tide of the war in Rome's favour.

While the Senate mustered their willing slaves, Hannibal offered his dishonoured Roman captives a chance for honourable death, in what Livy describes as something very like the Roman munus.

The munus thus represented an essentially military, self-sacrificial ideal, taken to extreme fulfillment in the gladiator's oath.

Two years later, following its defeat at the Battle of Arausio :. Rutilius, consul with C. For he, following the example of no previous general, with teachers summoned from the gladiatorial training school of C.

Aurelus Scaurus, implanted in the legions a more sophisticated method of avoiding and dealing a blow and mixed bravery with skill and skill back again with virtue so that skill became stronger by bravery's passion and passion became more wary with the knowledge of this art.

The military were great aficionados of the games, and supervised the schools. Many schools and amphitheatres were sited at or near military barracks, and some provincial army units owned gladiator troupes.

It would rise to twenty, and later, to twenty-five years. Roman military discipline was ferocious; severe enough to provoke mutiny, despite the consequences.

A career as a volunteer gladiator may have seemed an attractive option for some. Opposite him on the field, Vitellius 's army was swollen by levies of slaves, plebs and gladiators.

They had served their late master with exemplary loyalty but thereafter, they disappear from the record. Roman writing as a whole demonstrates a deep ambivalence towards the gladiatoria munera.

Even the most complex and sophisticated munera of the Imperial era evoked the ancient, ancestral dii manes of the underworld and were framed by the protective, lawful rites of sacrificium.

Their popularity made their co-option by the state inevitable; Cicero acknowledged their sponsorship as a political imperative. And suppose a gladiator has been brought to the ground, when do you ever see one twist his neck away after he has been ordered to extend it for the death blow?

Thus demoralised was Capua. The munus itself could be interpreted as pious necessity, but its increasing luxury corroded Roman virtue, and created an un-Roman appetite for profligacy and self-indulgence.

Having "neither hope nor illusions", the gladiator could transcend his own debased nature, and disempower death itself by meeting it face to face.

Courage, dignity, altruism and loyalty were morally redemptive; Lucian idealised this principle in his story of Sisinnes, who voluntarily fought as a gladiator, earned 10, drachmas and used it to buy freedom for his friend, Toxaris.

These accounts seek a higher moral meaning from the munus , but Ovid 's very detailed though satirical instructions for seduction in the amphitheatre suggest that the spectacles could generate a potent and dangerously sexual atmosphere.

There remained the thrilling possibility of clandestine sexual transgression by high-caste spectators and their heroes of the arena. Such assignations were a source for gossip and satire but some became unforgivably public: [].

What was the youthful charm that so fired Eppia? What hooked her? What did she see in him to make her put up with being called "the gladiator's moll"?

Her poppet, her Sergius, was no chicken, with a dud arm that prompted hope of early retirement. Besides his face looked a proper mess, helmet-scarred, a great wart on his nose, an unpleasant discharge always trickling from one eye.

But he was a gladiator. That word makes the whole breed seem handsome, and made her prefer him to her children and country, her sister, her husband.

Steel is what they fall in love with. Most gladiators would have aimed lower. On the one and the same account they glorify them and they degrade and diminish them; yes, further, they openly condemn them to disgrace and civil degradation; they keep them religiously excluded from council chamber, rostrum, senate, knighthood, and every other kind of office and a good many distinctions.

The perversity of it! They love whom they lower; they despise whom they approve; the art they glorify, the artist they disgrace. In this new Play, I attempted to follow the old custom of mine, of making a fresh trial; I brought it on again.

In the first Act I pleased; when in the meantime a rumor spread that gladiators were about to be exhibited; the populace flock together, make a tumult, clamor aloud, and fight for their places: meantime, I was unable to maintain my place.

Images of gladiators could be found throughout the Republic and Empire, among all classes. Mosaics dating from the 2nd through 4th centuries AD have been invaluable in the reconstruction of combat and its rules, gladiator types and the development of the munus.

Throughout the Roman world, ceramics, lamps, gems and jewellery, mosaics, reliefs, wall paintings and statuary offer evidence, sometimes the best evidence, of the clothing, props, equipment, names, events, prevalence and rules of gladiatorial combat.

Earlier periods provide only occasional, perhaps exceptional examples. Souvenir ceramics were produced depicting named gladiators in combat; similar images of higher quality, were available on more expensive articles in high quality ceramic, glass or silver.

Pliny the Elder gives vivid examples of the popularity of gladiator portraiture in Antium and an artistic treat laid on by an adoptive aristocrat for the solidly plebeian citizens of the Roman Aventine :.

When a freedman of Nero was giving a gladiatorial show at Antium , the public porticoes were covered with paintings, so we are told, containing life-like portraits of all the gladiators and assistants.

This portraiture of gladiators has been the highest interest in art for many centuries now, but it was Gaius Terentius who began the practice of having pictures made of gladiatorial shows and exhibited in public; in honour of his grandfather who had adopted him he provided thirty pairs of Gladiators in the Forum for three consecutive days, and exhibited a picture of the matches in the Grove of Diana.

Some Roman reenactors attempt to recreate Roman gladiator troupes. Some of these groups are part of larger Roman reenactment groups, and others are wholly independent, though they might participate in larger demonstrations of Roman reenacting or historical reenacting in general.

These groups usually focus on portraying mock gladiatorial combat in as accurate a manner as possible. Secutor, Thraex vs. Gladiator fights have been depicted in a number of peplum films also known as "sword-and-sandal" movies.

This is a genre of largely Italian-made historical epics costume dramas that dominated the Italian film industry from to They can be immediately differentiated from the competing Hollywood product by their use of dubbing.

The pepla attempted to emulate the big-budget Hollywood historical epics of the time, such as Spartacus.

Inspired by the success of Spartacus , there were a number of Italian peplums that emphasized the gladiatorial arena fights in their plots, with it becoming almost a peplum subgenre in itself; One group of supermen known as "The Ten Gladiators" appeared in a trilogy, all three films starring Dan Vadis in the lead role.

Grier and Markov portray female gladiators in ancient Rome, who have been enslaved and must fight for their freedom. Crowe portrays a fictional Roman general who is reduced to slavery and then rises through the ranks of the gladiatorial arena to avenge the murder of his family.

Amazons and Gladiators is a drama action adventure film directed and written by Zachary Weintraub starring Patrick Bergin and Jennifer Rubin.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Roman combatant for entertainment. For other uses, see Gladiator disambiguation. Main article: List of Roman gladiator types.

Main article: Gladiatrix. See also: Pollice verso. Shin guard depicting Venus Euploia on a ship shaped like a dolphin. Heart-shaped spear head found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii.

Main article: List of Roman amphitheatres. Gladiator show fight in Trier in Nimes , Carnuntum , Austria, Play media. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. History portal. Nicolaus cites Posidonius 's support for a Celtic origin and Hermippus' for a Mantinean therefore Greek origin.

Futrell is citing Livy, 9. Paestum was colonized by Rome in BC. Livy's account summary 16 places beast-hunts and gladiatorial munera within this single munus.

See Welch , p. Welch is citing Ausanius: Seneca simply says they were "war captives". Evidence of "Samnite" as an insult in earlier writings fades as Samnium is absorbed into the Republic.

Quoted in Futrell , pp. Livy's published works are often embellished with illustrative rhetorical detail. See Gladiator types.

Welch is citing Livy, The Aemilii Lepidii were one of the most important families in Rome at the time, and probably owned a gladiator school ludus.

Wiedemann is citing Valerius Maximus, 2. Gladiator gangs were used by Caesar and others to overawe and "persuade".

Gladiators could be enrolled to serve noble households; some household slaves may have been raised and trained for this. For more details see Plutarch's Julius Caesar , 5.

See also Pliny's Historia Naturalis , Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Greece was keen to upstage his Roman allies, but gladiators were becoming increasingly expensive, and to save costs, all his were local volunteers.

Kyle is citing Cicero's Lex Tullia Ambitu. Wiedemann is citing Cassius Dio, Augustus's games each involved an average gladiator pairs.

Brown is citing Dio Cassius, De Spectaculis , Compared to "pagan" noxii , Christian deaths in the arena would have been few. Relatio , 8. See Theoderet's Historia Ecclesiastica , 5.

The Jewish War , 6. C, at Lewis and Short Perseus Project. See also Cassius Dio's accusation of entrapment by informers to provide "arena slaves" under Claudius; Futrell , p.

Jeep has shown numerous concept pickup trucks, and officials at the automaker have "expressed interest in putting such a vehicle into production.

A production-ready version of a Jeep Scrambler pickup was shown in at the North American Dealers Association, but was pulled after a few hours.

According to Motor Trend , there might be a "production Jeep pickup truck in the works". In late a new Jeep Gladiator concept was introduced. While not officially intended to be sold, it was used as a demonstration "that a Jeep pickup was in the dark recesses of DaimlerChrysler's brain trust.

The Gladiator concept features an open-air canvas roof, fold-down windshield , removable doors, and has an expandable truck bed.

The Gladiator has a 2. The truck has a 6-speed manual transmission. Ground clearance is A "midgate" made the concept Gladiator truck closer to an imitation of the Chevrolet Avalanche , "than an attempt to revive its namesake's glory.

At the Jeep Safari in Moab, Utah, Jeep revealed seven new concepts including a Crew Chief pickup with four-doors and a 5-foot cargo bed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Series of Jeep pickup trucks. For other uses, see Gladiator disambiguation. This article is about the Gladiator.

Main article: Kaiser Jeep M Retrieved 16 January Jeep Dually Registry. Four Wheeler. Retrieved 9 July Popular Mechanics.

December The New York Times. Sweden Radio in Swedish. Foreningen Femorefortet in Swedish. Elite groupe.

Trebia Publishing. Osprey Publishing. MBI Publishing. The Jeep Pickups Page. Motor Trend. The Joy of Jeep. Car and Driver. Retrieved 18 December Categories : Jeep vehicles Pickup trucks All-wheel-drive vehicles Vehicles introduced in s cars s cars s cars Kaiser Motors Willys vehicles Motor vehicles manufactured in the United States Trucks of the United States Jeep concept vehicles.

Hidden categories: CS1 Swedish-language sources sv Articles with short description Commons category link is locally defined Commons category link is on Wikidata.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

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