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Der Tower wurde ursprünglich als königlicher Palast und zur Abwehr errichtet. Der Bau des Towers wurde unter William dem Eroberer gegen Ende des Jahres​. Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London (auf deutsch, kurz: der Londoner Tower) ist ein befestigter Gebäudekomplex am Nordufer der. Der Tower of London ist eine der berühmtesten Festungen der Welt. Er wurde von Wilhelm dem Eroberer gebaut und ist seitdem Teil der britischen. Der Tower of London dient seit fast Jahren der Demonstration der Macht der englischen Könige. Das spürt man auf Schritt und Tritt. Der Tower of London - die berühmteste Festung der Welt: Entdecken Sie das Weltkulturerbe und die funkelnden Kronjuwelen, die sich bis heute darin befinden!

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Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London (auf deutsch, kurz: der Londoner Tower) ist ein befestigter Gebäudekomplex am Nordufer der. Online-Einkauf von Spielzeug aus großartigem Angebot von Traditionelle Spiele, Kartenspiele, Brettspiele, Spiele Zubehör, Handkonsolen, Würfelspiele und. Der Tower of London - die berühmteste Festung der Welt: Entdecken Sie das Weltkulturerbe und die funkelnden Kronjuwelen, die sich bis heute darin befinden! Tower Of

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Sonntags und montags wird erst um 10 Uhr geöffnet. All other countries. Februar Jahrhundert wird die Festung von Touristen besucht. Diese wurden — archäologisch ergraben und untersucht.

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Usually they were given control of the city and were responsible for levying taxes, enforcing the law and maintaining order.

The creation in of the position of Lord Mayor of London removed many of the Constable's civic powers, and at times led to friction between the two.

The castle probably retained its form as established by until the reign of Richard I — As Longchamp's main fortress, he made the Tower as strong as possible.

The new fortifications were first tested in October , when the Tower was besieged for the first time in its history. Longchamp capitulated to John after just three days, deciding he had more to gain from surrender than prolonging the siege.

John succeeded Richard as king in , but his rule proved unpopular with many of his barons , who in response moved against him.

Although under-garrisoned, the Tower resisted and the siege was lifted once John signed the Magna Carta. Even after the Magna Carta was signed, Fitzwalter maintained his control of London.

During the war, the Tower's garrison joined forces with the barons. John was deposed in and the barons offered the English throne to Prince Louis , the eldest son of the French king.

War continued between the factions supporting Louis and Henry, with Fitzwalter supporting Louis. Fitzwalter was still in control of London and the Tower, both of which held out until it was clear that Henry III's supporters would prevail.

As a result, he was eager to ensure the Tower of London was a formidable fortification; at the same time Henry was an aesthete and wished to make the castle a comfortable place to live.

Most of the work was focused on the palatial buildings of the innermost ward. Beginning around , the castle was expanded to the east, north, and north-west.

New creations included a new defensive perimeter, studded with towers, while on the west, north, and east sides, where the wall was not defended by the river, a defensive ditch was dug.

The eastern extension took the castle beyond the bounds of the old Roman settlement, marked by the city wall which had been incorporated into the castle's defences.

So when the gatehouse collapsed in , the locals celebrated the setback. Henry III often held court at the Tower of London, and held parliament there on at least two occasions and when he felt that the barons were becoming dangerously unruly.

In , the discontented barons, led by Simon de Montfort , forced the King to agree to reforms including the holding of regular parliaments.

Relinquishing the Tower of London was among the conditions. Henry III resented losing power and sought permission from the pope to break his oath.

With the backing of mercenaries, Henry installed himself in the Tower in While negotiations continued with the barons, the King ensconced himself in the castle, although no army moved to take it.

A truce was agreed with the condition that the King hand over control of the Tower once again. Henry won a significant victory at the Battle of Evesham in , allowing him to regain control of the country and the Tower of London.

Cardinal Ottobuon came to England to excommunicate those who were still rebellious; the act was deeply unpopular and the situation was exacerbated when the cardinal was granted custody of the Tower.

Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , marched on London in April and laid siege to the castle, declaring that custody of the Tower was "not a post to be trusted in the hands of a foreigner, much less of an ecclesiastic".

The Earl retreated, allowing the King control of the capital, and the Tower experienced peace for the rest of Henry's reign. A new moat was created in front of the new curtain wall.

A new entrance was created, with elaborate defences including two gatehouses and a barbican. The institution was based at the Tower and responsible for organising the state's arms.

They hacked a hole in his cell wall and Mortimer escaped to a waiting boat. He fled to France where he encountered Edward's Queen. They began an affair and plotted to overthrow the King.

One of Mortimer's first acts on entering England in was to capture the Tower and release the prisoners held there. For four years he ruled while Edward III was too young to do so himself; in , Edward and his supporters captured Mortimer and threw him in the Tower.

During this period, the Tower of London held many noble prisoners of war. The nobility held captive within its walls were unable to engage in activities such as hunting which were permissible at other royal castles used as prisons, for instance Windsor.

Edward III ordered that the castle should be renovated. This tradition began in at least the early 14th century and lasted until When Richard rode out to meet with Wat Tyler , the rebel leader, a crowd broke into the castle without meeting resistance and looted the Jewel House.

However, he was taken away and beheaded on Tower Hill. During this period, the castle also held many distinguished prisoners.

The heir to the Scottish throne, later King James I of Scotland , was kidnapped while journeying to France in and held in the Tower.

As a result of Henry's victories, such as the Battle of Agincourt , many high-status prisoners were held in the Tower of London until they were ransomed.

Much of the latter half of the 15th century was occupied by the Wars of the Roses between the claimants to the throne, the houses of Lancaster and York.

With the help of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick nicknamed "the Kingmaker" Henry recaptured the throne for a short time in Shortly after the death of Edward IV in , the notorious murder of the Princes in the Tower is traditionally believed to have taken place.

The incident is one of the most infamous events associated with the Tower of London. The princes were last seen in public in June ; [] it has traditionally been thought that the most likely reason for their disappearance is that they were murdered late in the summer of The beginning of the Tudor period marked the start of the decline of the Tower of London's use as a royal residence.

As 16th-century chronicler Raphael Holinshed said the Tower became used more as "an armouries and house of munition, and thereunto a place for the safekeeping of offenders than a palace roiall for a king or queen to sojourne in".

Their condition was so poor that they were virtually uninhabitable. In the 16th century, the Tower acquired an enduring reputation as a grim, forbidding prison.

This had not always been the case. As a royal castle, it was used by the monarch to imprison people for various reasons, however these were usually high-status individuals for short periods rather than common citizenry as there were plenty of prisons elsewhere for such people.

Contrary to the popular image of the Tower, prisoners were able to make their life easier by purchasing amenities such as better food or tapestries through the Lieutenant of the Tower.

The Tower's reputation for torture and imprisonment derives largely from 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century romanticists.

The three most common forms used were the infamous rack , the Scavenger's daughter , and manacles. Among those held and executed at the Tower was Anne Boleyn.

High-status prisoners could live in conditions comparable to those they might expect outside; one such example was that while Walter Raleigh was held in the Tower his rooms were altered to accommodate his family, including his son who was born there in The Office of Ordnance and Armoury Office were founded in the 15th century, taking over the Privy Wardrobe's duties of looking after the monarch's arsenal and valuables.

The two bodies were resident at the Tower from at least , and by the 16th century they had moved to a position in the inner ward.

In the Board was abolished; its successor the Military Store Department of the War Office was also based there until , after which its headquarters staff were relocated to the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich where the recently closed Woolwich Dockyard was converted into a vast ordnance store.

Political tensions between Charles I and Parliament in the second quarter of the 17th century led to an attempt by forces loyal to the King to secure the Tower and its valuable contents, including money and munitions.

London's Trained Bands , a militia force, were moved into the castle in Plans for defence were drawn up and gun platforms were built, readying the Tower for war.

The preparations were never put to the test. In , Charles I attempted to arrest five members of parliament. When this failed he fled the city, and Parliament retaliated by removing Sir John Byron , the Lieutenant of the Tower.

The Trained Bands had switched sides, and now supported Parliament; together with the London citizenry, they blockaded the Tower. With permission from the King, Byron relinquished control of the Tower.

Parliament replaced Byron with a man of their own choosing, Sir John Conyers. The last monarch to uphold the tradition of taking a procession from the Tower to Westminster to be crowned was Charles II in At the time, the castle's accommodation was in such poor condition that he did not stay there the night before his coronation.

Although the facilities for the garrison were improved with the addition of the first purpose-built quarters for soldiers the "Irish Barracks" in , the general accommodations were still in poor condition.

When the Hanoverian dynasty ascended the throne, their situation was uncertain and with a possible Scottish rebellion in mind, the Tower of London was repaired.

Gun platforms added under the Stuarts had decayed. The number of guns at the Tower was reduced from to 45, and one contemporary commentator noted that the castle "would not hold out four and twenty hours against an army prepared for a siege".

The moat surrounding the castle had become silted over the centuries since it was created despite attempts at clearing it. It was still an integral part of the castle's defences, so in the Constable of the Tower, the Duke of Wellington , ordered a large-scale clearance of several feet of silt.

However this did not prevent an outbreak of disease in the garrison in caused by poor water supply, resulting in several deaths.

To prevent the festering ditch posing further health problems, it was ordered that the moat should be drained and filled with earth.

The work began in and was mostly complete two years later. The construction of the Waterloo Barracks in the inner ward began in , when the Duke of Wellington laid the foundation stone.

The building could accommodate 1, men; at the same time, separate quarters for the officers were built to the north-east of the White Tower.

The building is now the headquarters of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. It was the last major programme of fortification at the castle.

Most of the surviving installations for the use of artillery and firearms date from this period. During the First World War, eleven men were tried in private and shot by firing squad at the Tower for espionage.

One such person was Rudolf Hess , Adolf Hitler 's deputy, albeit just for four days in He was the last state prisoner to be held at the castle.

In the event of a German invasion , the Tower, together with the Royal Mint and nearby warehouses, was to have formed one of three "keeps" or complexes of defended buildings which formed the last-ditch defences of the capital.

The Tower of London has become established as one of the most popular tourist attractions in the country. It has been a tourist attraction since at least the Elizabethan period, when it was one of the sights of London that foreign visitors wrote about.

Its most popular attractions were the Royal Menagerie and displays of armour. The Crown Jewels also garner much interest, and have been on public display since The Tower steadily gained popularity with tourists through the 19th century, despite the opposition of the Duke of Wellington to visitors.

Numbers became so high that by a purpose-built ticket office was erected. By the end of the century, over , were visiting the castle every year.

Over the 18th and 19th centuries, the palatial buildings were slowly adapted for other uses and demolished. Only the Wakefield and St Thomas's Towers survived.

One of the effects was the emergence of Gothic Revival architecture. In the Tower's architecture, this was manifest when the New Horse Armoury was built in against the south face of the White Tower.

It featured elements of Gothic Revival architecture such as battlements. Other buildings were remodelled to match the style and the Waterloo Barracks were described as "castellated Gothic of the 15th century".

In , the War Office took over responsibility for manufacture and storage of weapons from the Ordnance Office, which was gradually phased out of the castle.

At the same time, there was greater interest in the history of the Tower of London. Public interest was partly fuelled by contemporary writers, of whom the work of William Harrison Ainsworth was particularly influential.

In The Tower of London: A Historical Romance he created a vivid image of underground torture chambers and devices for extracting confessions that stuck in the public imagination.

Working on the suggestion, Anthony Salvin refurbished the tower and led a further programme for a comprehensive restoration at the behest of Prince Albert.

Salvin was succeeded in the work by John Taylor. When a feature did not meet his expectations of medieval architecture Taylor would ruthlessly remove it; as a result, several important buildings within the castle were pulled down and in some cases post-medieval internal decoration removed.

On 23 September , during the Blitz , high-explosive bombs damaged the castle, destroying several buildings and narrowly missing the White Tower.

After the war, the damage was repaired and the Tower of London was reopened to the public. No one claimed responsibility for the blast, but the police investigated suspicions that the IRA was behind it.

In the 21st century, tourism is the Tower's primary role, the remaining routine military activities, under the Royal Logistic Corps , having wound down in the latter half of the 20th century and moved out of the castle.

Since , the Tower of London has been cared for by an independent charity, Historic Royal Palaces , which receives no funding from the Government or the Crown.

Visitors can explore the chambers restored to their former glory, once used by past kings and queens. General Sir Nick Houghton was appointed Constable in At least six ravens are kept at the Tower at all times, in accordance with the belief that if they are absent, the kingdom will fall.

The Yeomen Warders provided the permanent garrison of the Tower, but the Constable of the Tower could call upon the men of the Tower Hamlets to supplement them when necessary.

The Tower Hamlets, aka Tower Division was an area, significantly larger than the modern London Borough of the same name , which owed military service to the Constable in his ex officio role as Lord Lieutenant of the Tower Hamlets.

The Jewel House was built specifically to house the royal regalia, including jewels, plate, and symbols of royalty such as the crown, sceptre, and sword.

When money needed to be raised, the treasure could be pawned by the monarch. The treasure allowed the monarch independence from the aristocracy, and consequently was closely guarded.

A new position for "keeper of the jewels, armouries and other things" was created, [] which was well rewarded; in the reign of Edward III — the holder was paid 12d a day.

The position grew to include other duties including purchasing royal jewels, gold, and silver, and appointing royal goldsmiths and jewellers.

In , during the English Civil War , the contents of the Jewel House were disposed of along with other royal properties, as decreed by Cromwell.

Metal items were sent to the Mint to be melted down and re-used, and the crowns were "totallie broken and defaced". When the monarchy was restored in , the only surviving items of the coronation regalia were a 12th-century spoon and three ceremonial swords.

Some pieces that had been sold were later returned to the Crown. For the coronation of Charles II, gems were rented because the treasury could not afford to replace them.

This was exploited two years later when Colonel Thomas Blood attempted to steal them. Although they laid their hands on the Imperial State Crown, Sceptre and Orb, they were foiled when the keeper's son turned up unexpectedly and raised the alarm.

Some of the pieces are used regularly by the Queen. The display includes 23, gemstones, the year-old Coronation Spoon, St.

There is evidence that King John — first started keeping wild animals at the Tower. A wooden structure was built to house the elephant, In , Edward I added a lion and a lynx and appointed the first official Keeper of the animals.

Under subsequent kings, the number of animals grew to include additional cats of various types, jackals, hyenas, and an old brown bear, Max, gifted to Henry VIII by Emperor Maximilian.

Historical records indicate that a semi-circular structure or barbican was built by Edward I in ; this area was later named the Lion Tower, to the immediate west of the Middle Tower.

Records from indicate the purchase of a lock and key for the lions and leopards, also suggesting they were located near the western entrance of the Tower.

By the s that area was called the Menagerie. An overhead platform was added for viewing of the lions by the royals, during lion baiting, for example in the time of James I.

Reports from include mention of six lions, increasing to 11 by , in addition to other types of cats, eagles, owls and a jackal.

By the 18th century, the menagerie was open to the public; admission cost three half-pence or the supply of a cat or dog to be fed to the lions.

By the end of the century, that had increased to 9 pence. Additional animals were then introduced.

After the death of George IV in , a decision was made to close down the Menagerie on the orders of the Duke of Wellington.

The Menagerie buildings were removed in but the Keeper of the Royal Menagerie was entitled to use the Lion Tower as a house for life. Consequently, even though the animals had long since left the building, the tower was not demolished until the death of Copps, the last keeper, in In , physical evidence of lion cages was found, one being 2x3 metres 6.

Radiocarbon tests dated them from — and — Anne Boleyn was beheaded in for treason against Henry VIII ; her ghost supposedly haunts the Church of St Peter ad Vincula in the Tower, where she is buried, and has been said to walk around the White Tower carrying her head under her arm.

He said that the apparition hovered over the shoulder of his wife, leading her to exclaim: "Oh, Christ! It has seized me! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. For other uses, see Tower of London disambiguation. Listed Building — Grade I.

Listed Building — Grade II. Main article: White Tower Tower of London. See also: Church of St Peter ad Vincula.

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